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Anderson-DuBose: EV Case Study

Anderson-DuBose: EV Case Study Overview

This case study, provided by Anderson-DuBose, highlights how electric performed in the context of a one-year test carried out in the US with one EV truck.

Part 1: Baseline Fleet and Technology

This section describes the characteristics of the existing technology in the fleet (i.e. prior to the test). This provides information on the fleet characteristics, duty cycle details, and region of operation for the technology being tested.

Company Name Anderson-DuBose

Vehicle Type Diesel Terminal Truck (aka yard truck, hostler, spotter)

Fuel Type Diesel

Refueling Onsite

Average Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) 1000

Hours of Operation The truck supports 24 hour site operations, working as needed to reposition trailers. The diesel truck’s engine operated about 2,200 hours annually.

Average Load 50,000 pounds gross combined weight (GCW) plus truck

Maximum Load 65,000 pounds gross combined weight, plus truck, for a total GCW of 80,000 pounds

Length of Haul About fifty yards per pull, from trailer parking to dock doors, all within the yard of the distribution center

Return to Base? Yes

Country United States

City or Region Rochester, NY

Lifespan 13 years

Description Anderson-DuBose uses one diesel terminal truck in a two shift operation to reposition cargo trailers within its distribution center lot.

Part 2: Technology and Test Purpose

This section describes the type of technology tested and primary reasons behind the test.

Technology Tested Pure electric terminal truck, designed to do the same job as the diesel tuck, but without diesel or emissions

Test Purpose The purpose was to deploy the next step in cargo handling innovation and to achieve the benefits in emission reduction (elimination), cost savings, and overall sustainability in support of corporate sustainability objectives.

Part 3: Test Parameters

This section describes the actual parameters used to test the new sustainable technology, including vehicles tested, testing timeline, additional training and infrastructure requirements, etc.

Test Standard Since this EV truck had already been tested in routine use in other businesses and applications, Anderson-DuBose didn’t deploy the truck as a test, rather as an immediate commercial deployment to fully replace its diesel terminal truck. Full operations and data gathering began July 1, 2017 about a week after delivery and training and continue today. An entire year’s worth of data from July 1, 2017 to June 30, 2018 was compiled from the truck’s onboard telematics system and is provided here.

Sample Size One electric terminal truck (replaced the prior diesel terminal truck)

Test Start Date 01 July 2017

Test End Date 30 June 2018

Total Miles Tested This truck put on about 796 miles. Terminal truck usage is typically measured in hours, not miles, due to lower speed (and lower miles) supporting the in-yard, around-the-clock duty cycle.

Total Hours Tested From July 1, 2017 to June 30, 2018, this truck put on about 1,654 “key-on” hours. This compares to a reported 2,200 diesel engine hours, resulting in a reduction of 546 hours (about 25%), reducing idle operations and associated emissions and fuel cost.

Average Load Tested Same as the diesel (50,000 pounds gross combined weight (GCW) plus truck)

Maximum Load Tested Same as the diesel (65,000 pounds gross combined weight, plus truck, for a total GCW of 80,000 pounds)

Time to Fuel (in minutes) The truck charges during existing breaks in the schedule previously used for diesel fueling or when sitting idle, waiting for the next move assignment (aka opportunity charging). The electric truck is available as needed. Charging can range from 10-80 kW. This truck charges at 20 kW.

Testing Barriers None really!

Part 4: Supporting Services

This section describes the additional supporting services needed for the sustainable technology tested, including details on fuel type, infrastructure requirements, and personnel training.

Fuel Type Electric

Feedstock: Other The electric truck fuel is the electricity stored in batteries carried on the truck. These batteries are sealed and maintenance free. Anderson-DuBose drivers just plug in the truck without having to worry about or manage battery swaps or any specific battery maintenance.

Level of Readily Available Infrastructure Medium

New/Special Infrastructure Requirements For this Extended Duty truck, two 240 VAC circuits with 60 amp breakers were run and connected to the OEM’s EVSE assembly at the truck charging location. The EVSE assembly for each circuit consists of a small box connected to a cable and charging plug. Cost to run electrical circuits varies from site to site based on distance to charging and electrical capacity that’s already available. One parking spot will need to be identified and wired for vehicle charging. Additional charging locations may be required depending on how many units are purchased.

Special Training Requirements Training on the truck and charging operations was completed by the OEM in about three (3) hours upon delivery. Anderson-DuBose subsequently developed an SOP that covers charging protocol for the operation.

Part 5: Operational Performance

This section describes the key metrics used to measure operational performance of the alternative fuel or technology, benchmarked against the current technology used in the fleet.

GHG Emissions Reduction % 100% of all tailpipe emissions have been eliminated.

Air Quality Emissions % 100% of all tailpipe emissions have been eliminated.

Fuel Economy (MPDGE) The electric terminal truck used an average of about 6 kW (aka kW-hr / hr)

Driver Satisfaction High

Special Training Requirements None

Special Maintenance Requirements None. Site mechanics already knew what they need to perform preventative maintenance. The same OEM was selected to provide routine PM.

Additional Benefits for Fleet Replacing a heavy-emitting diesel yard truck with pure-electric completely eliminates that vehicle’s tailpipe emissions and diesel fuel consumption, an important step in the sustainability efforts of both Anderson-DuBose and its customer McDonald’s. Anderson-DuBose has long been committed to minimizing the company’s environmental impact and utilizes an environmental management system that meets ISO 14001: 2004 Certification. Each year, Anderson-DuBose sets aggressive sustainability targets to reduce electricity consumption, diesel fuel usage, and waste-to-landfill. Switching to a 100% electric terminal truck (aka yard truck) significantly reduces the company’s carbon footprint while also supporting their customer’s vision to “realize a food supply where people, animals and the planet thrive". Moving to electric also provides a better working environment for Anderson-DuBose employees with a truck that is smoother, cooler, quieter, and cleaner. Facility managers have heard great comments from the drivers who find the EV truck more comfortable, and operators really like the quiet and smooth operation. Management is pleased that they can provide a safer and healthier working environment – the truck has no engine and no emissions. This change also positively impacts its neighbors and broader community.

Additional Challenges for Fleet While it costs much less to operate, initial purchase price to deploy the truck was more than a new diesel truck. AD used a purchase incentive provided by the state of New York to reduce this incremental purchase price.

Part 6: Financial Performance

This section describes company’s expectations for financial and economic performance of the technology, benchmarked against the incumbent fuel/technology. Where noted, minus (-) is savings and plus (+) is additional costs for the fleet.

Fuel Premiums/Savings Percentage The net fuel savings were ~88% of what was previously spent on diesel fuel. Charging the truck cost about $1.83 per day, compared to about $15.80 in diesel fuel.

Maintenance Premiums/Savings Percentage Savings in maintenance is estimated at about $7.61 per day. Add to this avoided costs related to emission control and reduced repair cost.

Capital Premiums/Savings Percentage Price to purchase the EV truck was about 12% higher after incentive discounts were applied.

Estimated Residual Value in US$ None of this OEM's trucks have yet been sold to a second generation owner (a good sign after years in commercial use). Given the longevity of the truck and power train (including battery pack), the incremental purchase cost is expected to be repaid in a few years with the entire remaining truck purchase price repaid out of savings well before end of life.

Did You Use Subsidies? Yes

Part 7: Conclusions

Will You Include this Technology in Your Fleet? Yes

Additional Comments It’s a well proven technology, both in our fleet and others, that meets all of Anderson-DuBose’s objectives far better than other vehicles options.

Would You Recommend this Technology for Other Fleets or Applications? Yes

Additional Comments Yes, for the same reasons as above. Based on meeting objectives in sustainability, performance, and ROI, Anderson-DuBose recommends fleets deploy this type of EV units. The EV’s electric terminal truck fully met performance objectives.Deployment and training were relatively simple and there have been no challenges. The truck does the job, while eliminating diesel and all tailpipe emissions, and dramatically reducing operating costs. Anderson-Dubose has recommended continued deployment of this type of electric terminal trucks.

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